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Ancient Egypt and the Egyptians in general are looked upon with great awe and

Egyptian dynasties and the Bible

Egyptian dynasties and the Bible (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

reverence for what these people were able to carry out. But most generally, we today have very little understanding of this great lost ancient powerhouse.

The bible portrays Moses saving the Israelites with God’s hand from slavery. Being bound by the Egyptians and made to toil in slavery building great monuments for their masters. This has never set right with me as my studies of Ancient Egypt reveals a different story completely.

During the First Intermediate Period roughly 2200 – 2000 B.C. many families and groups fought for control of Egypt. Montuhotep II, the ruler of Thebes in southern Egypt, reunited Egypt and founded the Middle Kingdom basically (2008 – 1721 B.C.) During this time ( around 1800 B.C.) a group of Semites known as the Hyksos began settling in the Egyptian delta and during the late Middle Kingdom their numbers began to grow.The Hyksos seized control of lower Egypt and ruled from their capital at Avaris.This helped to create the Second Intermediate Period (1721-1539 B.C.) under the harsh Hyksos rule Egyptian opposition arose. finally the Theban Prince Ahmose besieged the city of Avaris, sacked it, and drove the Hyksos out. Ahmose assumed the throne and founded the Eighteenth Dynasty. This ended the humiliation of the Egyptians at the hands of the Hyksos rulers. The Hyksos controlled lower Egypt for more than a century. Relative peace and prosperity followed during the New Kingdom (1539-1075 B.C.)

It is during this time of peace the bible says Moses led his people out of Egypt. However, all signs point to the Hyksos as the Semites driven out of Egypt as being the Now called Nation of Israel. The Israelites wandered the deserts for forty years growing in strength and then they began invading and capturing lands by killing all those who resided on those lands, and thus the Nation of Israel was born.

Hyksos, group of mixed Semitic-Asiatics who immigrated into Egypt’s delta region and gradually settled there during the 18th century bce. Beginning about 1630, a series of Hyksos kings ruled northern Egypt as the 15th dynasty (c. 1630–1523 B.C. The name Hyksos was used by the Egyptian historian Manetho (fl. 300 B.C.), who, according to the Jewish historianFlavius Josephus ( 1st century B.C.), translated the word as “king-shepherds” or “captive shepherds.” Josephus himself wished to prove the great antiquity of the Jews and thus identified the Hyksos with the Hebrews of the Bible. Hyksos was in fact probably an Egyptian term for “rulers of foreign lands” (heqa-khase), and it almost certainly designated the foreign dynasts and not a whole nation.

The Hyksos seem to have been connected with the general migratory movements elsewhere in the Middle East at the time. Although most of the Hyksos names seem to have been Semitic, there may also have been a Hurrian element among them. The contemporary 16th-dynasty rulers—minor Hyksos kings who ruled simultaneously with those of the 15th dynasty—were probably only vassals of the latter group.

The Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot, the compound bow, improved battle axes, and advanced fortification techniques into Egypt. At Avaris (modern Tall al-Dabʿa) in the northeastern delta, they built their capital with a fortified camp over the remains of a Middle Kingdom town. Excavations since the 1960s have revealed a Canaanite-style temple, Palestinian-type burials, including horse burials, Palestinian types of pottery, quantities of their superior weapons, and a series of Minoan frescoes that show stylistic parallels to those of Knossos and Thera.

Their chief deity was the Egyptian storm and desert god, Seth, whom they identified with an Asiatic storm god. From Avaris they ruled most of Lower Egypt and the Nile valley as far south as Cusae. When under Seqenenre and Kamose the Thebans began to rebel, the Hyksos pharaoh Apopis tried unsuccessfully to make an alliance with the rulers of Kush, who had overrun Lower Nubia in the later years of the 13th dynasty (1650 B.C.).

The Theban revolt spread northward under Kamose, and about 1521 Avaris fell to his successor, Ahmose, founder of the 18th dynasty, thereby ending 108 years of Hyksos rule over Egypt. Although vilified in some Egyptian texts, the Hyksos had ruled as pharaohs and were listed as legitimate kings in the Turin Papyrus. At least superficially they were Egyptianized, and they did not interfere with Egyptian culture beyond the political sphere.

When Moses was cast out into the desert before his return he was befriended by the same people he later slaughtered for their land. The nation of Israel took what they could or what God had promised them by the blood of the women and children they left dead.

This just doesn’t seem to sound like what I was taught going to church as a child. But this is the reality of what took place some 3500 years ago.

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